Category Archives: County

Giessen Emigration Society

In 1834, the largest organized German emigration group to ever set out for Missouri arrived. They came from small villages and large cities, were Catholic, Protestant, Jewish and Free-Thinkers. They were lawyers, doctors, and teachers; and blacksmiths, tanners and farmers as well. They were organized, with good character references, who had pledged their entire life savings to join others with the same dream – Freedom and America! This was the life that they had sought for long.

These  five-hundred Germans emigrated to the United States, with an intention to establish their own state. Decades of revolutionary struggles had failed, convincing them that the power of their rulers could not be broken, for the time being. Yet, as passionate democrats, they were determined to establish a new German Republic – in North America. This bold, now almost forgotten, venture of the Giessen Emigration Society, was an event much-discussed across Germany at that time.The Society’s founders were unable to achieve their goal they had stated. However they did find the conditions right to contribute to the strong democratic beliefs they found in the fertile United States. Settling in Missouri, they began to create a lively intellectual center that exists even to this day. They led in the struggles against religious intolerance, and fought to abolish slavery during the Civil War. They promoted the State’s rich viticultural assets, and encouraged further emigration, ultimately achieving a State rich with German heritage, that still exists today.

In St. Charles County, members of this huge emigration group created various settlements, such as Hamburg and St. Paul, they turned earlier American settlements such as Cottleville and Augusta into German Settlements. These new emigrants in turn wrote letters home to their friends and relatives bringing even larger waves to settle here.

 

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Slave Sales

 On a frigid New Years day in 1861, in St. Louis, Missouri, a slave auction was halted when heated Germans crowded the sale block. Outraged, they kept the auction from going forward.  A slave named Jim was sold that day. But this was not the last slave sale by far. In fact, Jim’s former owners sold other slaves on a much warmer day, the fourth of May 1861.

 In 1861, Missouri’s Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson, a secessionist, was determined to take the state out of the Union. He also wanted the muskets stored in the Federal Arsenal at St. Louis.  But when he attempted to gain those muskets by force he found a force that included  thousands of Germans, gathered from St. Louis, St. Charles and counties to the west.  Emigrants who had drilled in secret, with sawdust on the floors and windows covered for secrecy. Germans who had come to America, where “the sun of freedom” shone. Germans who had made America home and could not go back. Germans who understood the deprivations and hated slavery. They also knew that as long the slave holders held power over Missouri politics, their freedom from Nativism and other oppression, the lives they envisioned for their families was endangered.

When Jackson had attempted secession he failed. Germans had begun emigrating to Missouri in the early 1830s, settling along the Missouri River valley.  They had reached a position, small but respected in Missouri politics by the 1860s. The Convention had to recognize the German voice of Friedrich Muench and it failed in its attempt to secede. Jackson fled, exiled and powerless. But the Germans stayed and Missouri became a border State divided.

Two years later, on another New Years day in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.”  These applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the border state of Missouri.  It also announced that black men would be accepted into the Union Army. The proclamation changed the Civil War from a states rights issue, to the real issue of slavery vs. freedom. These were issues the Germans understood and took to heart. They would fight, in the field and in the Statehouse. 

Gottfried Duden

Saint Charles County is one of the most predominantly German in its ethnic heritage in the State of Missouri. Missouri being one the most German in the U.S. as well, makes us one of the largest in the country. Ever wonder why that is? Some historians cite a small self-published book, published in 1829 by a German named Gottfried Duden, “A Report on a Journey to the Western States of North America“.

Born May 19, 1789 in the city of Remscheid, the middle child in a family of five children of Leonhard and Maria Duden. His father, owner of a large pharmaceutical company, died when he was only six. He grew up and took on the profession of law, in a time when Germany was in a lot of turmoil. Following the Napoleonic wars, the huge population was suffering with famine, and huge taxes imposed by the rulers in response to a rising revolution. After seeing the successful rebellions, in America and France, many Germans felt that a united country would be stronger and able to defend itself, thus ending the years of wars it had seen. Young Duden listened to their problems and saw the young far western U.S., filling with the friends and family of the world famous Daniel Boone, as the place to be.

Emigration books, as they were called, were not a new thing at that time. Hundreds were being published at that time, suggesting emigration to Russia, England, and South America. Many written by authors that had never even been to the places they were writing about. How could their advice be trusted Duden wondered, and so he began planning a journey for himself. He bought land, in what was yet to be, the State of Missouri. He hired a professional farmer, named Ludwig Eversmann, and brought him and his cook Gertrude, and headed for his farm on Lake Creek, in the Missouri River valley west of Saint Charles. He stayed here from 1824 till 1827, writing a series of letters describing life that was first published in Germany in 1829, a best seller in its day.

For many, Duden’s book was the right words at the right time. Some were critical! They said everything was not the same in 1830s as he had described in his 1824 letter. Duden responded that they didn’t understand or get the point. He was accused of painting a picture in words, of a Utopia or Garden of Eden. Many Germans, such as Friedrich Steines, defended him saying

“while all is not exactly as he (Duden) described, in some ways it was better.”

To the Germans that needed to get government permission to move, marry, or even cut firewood, American’s freedoms were enviable. Where your family ate more meat in a week, than they did in a year back home. Where estate law ruled the rights of inheritance to the eldest child, the right to own as many acres of land as you could afford, and leave it to all of your children was unbelievable. The right to vote and chose your rulers and the freedom to say whatever you thought of them, without fear, was amazing. You decided what church you wanted to attend, what kind of school your children would have, and yes they would receive a free education. You decided your own profession and your own future. What was there to not like?

There will always be some anxious to criticize though. The language and the customs were foreign. They had slaves in some states, allowing a profit and making some wealthy aristocrats. The weather was not like Duden had described. (Who has seen more than two identical Missouri winters or summers?) Sometimes, we have to find something or someone to blame for our failure. Duden tried to defend himself, as further editions of his book were published, and thousands continued to immigrate.

The decision to emigrate is a personal one, and there were as many reasons as there were Germans. Historians estimate over 20,000 came to Missouri during the 1830s. Many of those wrote letters home to family and friends, urging them to come, in what is known as chain migration. Today those letters could be compared to tweets and You Tube gone viral! Apparently it is sometimes easier to trust your friends, than a wealthy attorney.

Duden died on October 29, 1856, in Germany, without ever returning to his beautiful Missouri farm with its cows, as he had originally planned. His book “A Report on a Journey” lived on, with many attempting to follow his suggestions. And come they did! Today, many Saint Charles County residents and family historians trace their ancestors back to Germany. As Missouri became a gateway to the west for American pioneers, it became home to generations of Germans, with towns like Hamburg, Melle, and Cappeln. Many of us still today think Duden definitely got it right!